THE NORTH LITTLE ROCK HISTORY COMMISSION WILL BE SHOWING MY PEN AND INK DRAWINGS OF STRUCTURES ON THE NATIONAL HISTORIC REGISTER DURING THE ARGENTA ARTWALK FEBRUARY 19 FROM 5-8 PM. MY BOOKS ABOUT THE ARGENTA NATIONAL HISTORIC DISTRICT WILL ALSO BE FEATURED: I WILL BE THERE TO SIGN PURCHASED COPIES. YOU CAN ALSO ORDER LIMITED EDITION PRINTS OF THE DRAWINGS DURING THAT TIME. AS YOU KNOW, MY PEN AND INK DRAWINGS ARE CAREFUL AND DETAILED, AND THE IMAGES IN THE BOOK ARE OUTSTANDING. I’LL TELL YOU JUST WHY I DECIDED TO START THIS 3 YEAR LONG PROJECT AS WELL! PLEASE COME BY AND VISIT.
The book on my Argenta project is finally printed! It contains images of the 25 pen and ink drawings I did of Argenta buildings, plus the history of the region, each building, and architectural facts. The book is 8 x 9.5″ and sells for $34.49 at http://www.blurb.com/b/6631540-the-argenta-national-historic-district, plus shipping. At present, you can get it from me for $35 (I’m not making a dime on it)! Let me know if you’re interested; I’m always willing to sign the frontspiece for you!
Here are some other images from the book:
Knowing about how to use linear perspective doesn’t mean that you have to be a slave to it. Using the principles of perspective in drawings and paintings that include buildings, posts, roads, etc. can become an internal knowledge that makes your artwork more realistic. However, some artists like to distort reality and in doing so, distort perspective as well. De Chirico is a prime example of this. Some contemporary artists do this as well: (from Artist Magazine, June 2010).
But here’s another way to use perspective creatively — an imaginary residence high up in the sky! This drawing uses 4 vanishing points — all related. The vanishing points are on vertical and horizontal lines. Try this in your sketchbook to work out your “dream house”!
If you have drawn the country home that I showed last post, you may be ready to add an addition or a porch to your drawing. Hopefully you have put in some windows, and maybe a chimney using the same converging lines to the vanishing points. All you need to do to add a porch or extension is to bring a corner post forward and use the same vanishing points and vanishing traces to add the roof. To add a center door, remember to make the x from each corner of the rectangle to find the center, and then position the door in the center. Steps could be added in the same way. A walkway that is parallel to the horizon line can also be added as per example. To make the fence posts and fence, follow this sequence: Decide where you want the corner post and draw it in as a vertical shape. Draw converging lines to the vanishing points from the bottom and the top of the corner post. Establish the second post arbitrarily when you’d like it to be using the converging lines for the top and bottom. Now, make an X from point to point of the first and second posts. This determines the center point between each post. From the center of the X, draw another line to the vanishing point. Then draw a diagonal line from the top of the first post through the middle of the second post. Where that line crosses the bottom converging line is where to position the third post. Continue drawing the rest of the posts in the same way, and do the other side the same way. Elaborate the posts any way you wish, but you have fenced off your country property! Remember to add trees and shrubs to make it homey…
Let’s try to draw an imaginary country home using the concepts of two-point perspective. Here are the steps I used:
- On a large *18 x 24″) sheet of drawing paper, draw a horizon line and select two vanishing points as far away on the page as you can. Then draw the front corner of the house approximately 2″ tall. Draw vanishing lines from the top and bottom of this line to the vanishing points on the left and the right.
- Your imaginary house in this case will face to the right. Draw vertical lines to establish the length and width of the building. You have made a box similar to what we did before.
- On the wide part of the box, draw diagonal lines from corner to corner to find its center. Extend a vertical line through this center point and extend it about 1 1/2″ above the top of your box. This will define the height of the gable end of the roof.
- Connect the top of the gable with the vertical sides of the box at both ends, extending just a little beyond the side to make your eaves.
- Now draw a converging line from the gable peak to the left vanishing point. This is the top of the roof.
- What about the back side of the roof? To get this point, extend a vertical line from the right vanishing point all the way up as far as you can on your paper.
- From the left corner of the facing side, extend a converging line all the way up the left side of the gable until it meets extended line you drew from the right vanishing point. Make a dot where these lines meet — this is called a vanishing trace. Where it intersects the top of the roof is where your roof ends.
- Extend a roof line a little beyond your left house end to make the roof. From this point, draw a converging line to the vanishing trace. Where it intersects the roof line is the end of your roof.
- So far, you have made a box-type house with a gabled roof. You can make some windows on one side if you wish like you made windows in the indoor examples. Next post, I’ll discuss how to make a front porch, a walkway, and a fence enclosing the property!
The Golden mean and Fibonacci numbers have been used since the time of Ancient Greece, especially in the design of the Parthenon. This system might have even been used by the Egyptians in building the pyramids. It has been used by artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Picasso, Seurat, Signac, Hopper, and Mondrian. Even musicians have used it in their works — Mozart, Beethoven (his 5th Symphony), Bach, Schubert, Bartok, Satie, and DeBussy have all been thought to use the divisions. An article in The American Scientist of March/April 1996 points out that many of Mozart’s sonatas can be divided into two parts exactly at the golden section point in almost all cases. The Mathematics Teaching magazine in 1978 points out that Beethoven used the system. It is even thought that Virgil structured the Aeneid in this way.
In architecture, the Golden Mean is a standard proportion for width in relation to height, in first story to second story buildings, in the sizes of windows. Look at any three-story bank building for instance to see the proportion in use. The College of Engineering at the California Polytechnic State University built the new engineering plaza based on the Fibonacci numbers. Plaza designer Jeffry Gordon Smith said, “As a guiding element, we selected the Fibonacci series spiral, or golden mean as the representation of engineering knowledge. ” The United Nations Building in New York is supposedly built on a golden rectangle.
What is most interesting is the way Leonardo Da Vinci’s The Last Supper was composed. The scene itself is based on two squares, with Christ in the center. All converging lines lead to the vanishing point on the horizon line, his face. The top of the windows lies at a golden section as do the outer edges of the side windows. Christ’s hands are at the golden section of half the height of the composition. The figures are grouped in threes, in a series of four shapes, with Christ forming the fifth. Application of the Fibonacci numbers includes: 1 table, 1 central figure, 2 side walls, 3 windows and figures grouped in 3’s, 5 groups of figures, 8 wall panels and 8 trestle legs, 13 individual figures.
Realizing how often the Golden Mean and Fibonacci numbers have been used in all forms of art, I tried it myself in writing a poem. I admit the structure is a little different, but here’s what I came up with based on the number of syllables in each line:
NOW YOU TRY IT!
Look at this number sequence: 1,3,5,7,9,11 – what number should be next? 13 of course. What about this sequence? 3,6,12,24? The answer is 48. Now take a look at this one: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 — what number comes next? If you said 34 – you’d be right! You had to add the last two numbers to get the next – and so forth.
This last is called the Fibonacci sequence after its discoverer — Leonardo of Pisa known as Fibonacci (son of Bonacci) who wrote a book about math in 1202 in which he was trying to determine how fast rabbits could breed. He was educated in North Africa and learned his mathematical system from the Moors. He helped Europe replace the Roman numeral system with the “algorithms” that we use today.
It has been found that this number sequence corresponds closely with the golden mean or section: if you divide each number by the number before it, your results get closer and closer to Phi (1/66, 1/62, 1/615, 1/619, 1/6176, 1/6181818 etc). This sequence is found in nature – in the spirals of flower petals, seed heads, pine cones, vegetables, leaf arrangements, nautilus shells, even the human body and face. The French architect LeCorbusier thought that the human body when measured from foot to stomach and then again from stomach to top of the head was very close to the Golden Mean. Even the span of the arms and legs adhere to this proportion. Dentists and oral surgeons use the proportion because the relative sizes of the jaws and teeth conform to the ratio. The proportional ratio of the upper lateral incisors to the upper front incisors is 1:1.618! Some believe that the more closely a woman’s face conforms to the ratio, the more beautiful she’ll look. Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing of the Vitruvian Man depicts where he marked off proportions according to the phi progression.
Take a look at these images from nature. Do you see where the spiral starts in the middle and progresses outward, enlarging proportionally until the sequence is completed? More on this as it applies to the arts later!
Check out how many examples of Fibonacci numbers you can see in nature — look at broccoli, cauliflower, a pine cone, etc. Remember, though, that everything does not correspond.
A discussion by Steven Sheehan in the American Artist Magazine, September 2007, included this definition of the Golden Mean or Golden Section: “Also known as the Golden Mean, the Golden Section is a canon of proportion used in painting, sculpture, and architecture thought to have special meaning because of its correspondence to the principles of the universe.” This proportion is thought to be most pleasing to the human eye, and can be used in designing visual art compositions.
In the 1930’s, Pratt Institute in New York interviewed several hundred of its art students as to which vertical frame they liked the best and the least. The ratio of 1:2 was the least liked, while the 1:618 ratio was the preferred frame. If this ratio was to be used in a compositional format, the shape of your paper or canvas should be 10 x 16″ rather than 11 x 14″ or 12 x 16″ (standard sizes). To figure out a larger format using the golden mean start with a square. Using a compass, place the center pin at the midpoint of the bottom edge (B). Swing an arc out from an upper corner and extend the bottom edge of the square out to meet the arc (segment C). Complete the rectangle with B=C as the base. Now A (height) is in the same proportion of B+C as B+C is of A+B+C (the Golden Mean).
We all know how to find the “sweet spot” in a composition for the center of interest: divide the format into thirds both horizontally and vertically, and where any of the sections cross is a good place to put your center of interest. This is the easy way, but not quite in the same proportions as the Golden Mean. The Pastel Journal of December 2005 features an artist who uses the Golden Section for her compositions: Sydney McGinley. Not only does she use the ratio as her format and for placing shapes within the composition, but to choose the right proportion of hues.
Here is an illustration of how to devise your own format in the Golden Section using the method outlined above:
Have you ever heard of “The Golden Mean” or the “Golden Section?” It is a method of design that has been used throughout the ages as the most natural and satisfying proportion known to man. Occurring naturally in sea shells, flowers, tree branching, certain vegetables , and even in the human body— it is thought to correspond with the principles of the universe. Since the first century BC, it has been used in architecture, sculpture, painting, music, geometry, film-making, furniture-making, and writing. Modern architecture still uses the golden section, such as the United Nations building in New York. It has become a standard proportion for width in relation to height as used in facades of buildings, windows, second and third stories, and in paintings.
Vitruvius, an architect and engineer in the 1st century BC, was the first to write about the Golden Mean as the perfect proportion for buildings, rooms, and columns. The Greeks and Romans used it to build the Parthenon, the Pantheon, and the buildings on the Acropolis. Vitruvius’ theory became the standard for architecture, expressed in the ratio of the number 1 to the irrational 1.618034… or Phi. In the Renaissance, Luca Pacioli of Venice published Divina Proportione, and explained the golden section thusly:
The line AB is divided so that the length of the shorter portion is in the same ratio to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In other words, the Golden Mean is the division of a given unit of length into two parts such that the ratio of the shorter to the longer equals the ratio of the longer part to the whole.
Phi is named for the Greek sculptor Phidias, who carved the entablature above the columns of the Parthenon. Golden sections are formed by the distance between the columns in the ratio of 1:1.618 or Phi. Here is a photo of the east facade of the Parthenon.
It will take several blogs to do any kind of justice to this topic, so watch for continuing articles. Email me questions and comments, if you are interested.